Are Boys Really Better at Math?


American Enterprise Institute: “Women, men and the sciences.”

Jessica Cantlon, professor of developmental neuroscience, Carnegie Melon University, Pittsburgh.

Jo Boaler, professor in the Graduate School of Education at Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Science of Learning, “Gender similarities in the brain during mathematics development,” “No intrinsic gender differences in children’s earliest numerical abilities.”

AERA Open, “Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors Across two cohorts.” “Gender differences on the ACT test: Boys score higher on math and science; girls score higher on English and reading.”

National Center for Education Statistics: “Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups.”

U.S. Department of commerce: “Women in Stem, 2017 Update.”

Psychological science, “Building blocks for developing spatial skills: evidence from a large, U.S. representative sample.” 

National Bureau of Economic Research: “On the Origins of Gender Human Capital Gaps: Short and Long Term Consequences of Teachers’ Stereotypical Biases.”

NBER Conference on Diversifying the Science & Engineering Workforce, Jan. 14, 2005, archive of remarks.

The Guardian Newspaper: “Physics was built by men.”

Educational Studies in Mathematics, “Investigating Pupils’ Images of Mathematicians,”

World Economic Forum Report: “Three things to know about women and STEM.”

Journal of Economic Perspectives, “Explaining the gender gap in math test scores: The role of competition.” 




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